On This Day: November 12th

November 12th:

1927- Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, paving the way for Joseph Stalin to consolidate complete power

1968- US Supreme Court: Epperson v. Arkansas, court declares unconstitutional Arkansas law banning teaching evolution in public schools

1727- France & Bavaria renew secret treaty

1793- The 1st Mayor of Paris and astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly, is guillotined during the Reign of Terror

1890- Mabel Loomis Todd publishes the first edition of “Poems by Emily Dickinson”

1923- In Germany, Adolf Hitler is arrested for attempt to seize power during “Beer Hall Putsch” coup

1925- US & Italy sign peace accord about war debts

1933- 1st NFL football game on a Sunday at Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field – sporting events on Sunday had been illegal on Sundays; Pirates lose to Brooklyn Dodgers 32-0

1965- Ferdinand Marcos elected 10th President of Philippines

1975- 7h Rugby League World Cup: Australia beats England 25-0

1984- Paul McCartney releases “We All Stand Together”

1990- The World Wide Web is first proposed by CERN computer scientists Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau

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On This Day: November 5th

November 5th:

1937- Adolf Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intentions of going to war.

1605- Gunpowder Plot: Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up King James I and the British Parliament. Plot discovered, Guy Fawkes caught, tortured and later executed along with seven others. Celebrated ever since as Guy Fawkes Day, where his effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, accompanied by fireworks.

1639- First post office in the colonies is set up in Massachusetts

1781- John Hanson elected first “President of US in Congress assembled”

1872- American women’s right to vote advocate Susan B. Anthony votes for Ulysses S. Grant

1872- Ulysses S. Grant re-elected US President

1895- 1st US patent granted for auto (George B Selden) for gasoline driven car

1912- Arizona, Kansas & Wisconsin vote for female suffrage

1912- Democrat candidate Woodrow Wilson is elected President of the United States, defeating Republican incumbent William Howard Taft and Progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt

1940- Franklin D. Roosevelt is re-elected President of the United States for an unprecedented third term, defeating Republican candidate Wendell Willkie

1946- John F. Kennedy (Democrat, Massachusetts) elected to US House of Representatives

1953- Film “How to Marry a Millionaire” directed by Jean Negulesco, starring Lauren Bacall, Betty Grable and Marilyn Monroe, first to be filmed in CinemaScope; release delayed to allow “The Robe” to debut the format

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On This Day: October 29th

October 29th:

1929- “Black Tuesday” Wall Street Stock Market crashes triggering the “Great Depression”

2015- China announces the end of their one-child policy after 35 years

1390- First trial for witchcraft in Paris

1682- William Penn lands at what is now Chester, Pennsylvania

1692- Court of Oyer and Terminer, convened for Salem witch trials, dissolved

1833- 1st US college fraternity to have a fraternity house founded

1864- Greek parliament accepts new Constitution

1872- J. S. Risdon of Genoa, Illinois, patents the metal windmill

1942- Branch Rickey named president and General Manager of Brooklyn Dodgers

1942- Nazis murder 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union

1954- Sweden begins experimental TV

1958- Boris Pasternak refuses the Nobel Prize for Literature

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On This Day: October 22nd

October 22nd:

1879- Thomas Edison perfects carbonized cotton filament light bulb

1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy addresses TV about Russian missile bases in Cuba and imposes a naval blockade on Cuba, beginning the missile crisis

1836- Sam Houston inaugurated as 1st elected President of the Republic of Texas

1906- Henry Ford becomes President of Ford Motor Company

1907- Ringling Brothers Greatest Show on Earth buys Barnum & Bailey circus

1916- US suffragette Inez Milholland collapses during a speech in Los Angeles (dies weeks later). Her last word’s are to President Woodrow Wilson “Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?”

1926- J. Gordon Whitehead sucker punches magician Harry Houdini in the stomach in Montreal

1934- In East Liverpool, Ohio, notorious bank robber Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd is shot and killed by FBI agents

1936- 1st commercial flight from mainland to Hawaii

1938- Chester Carlson demonstrates 1st Xerox copying machine

1968- Apollo 7 returns to Earth

1969- Paul McCartney denies greatly exaggerated rumors of his death

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On This Day: October 15th:

October 15th:

1815- Napoleon Bonaparte arrives on island of St Helena to begin his exile

1993- Nelson Mandela and South African President F. W. de Klerk awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1520- King Henry VIII of England orders bowling lanes at Whitehall

1674- Torsåker witch trials begin, largest witch trials in Sweden, 71 beheaded and burned

1789- 1st US presidential tour by George Washington in New England

1816- Lord Byron views the love letters of Lucrezia Borgia and poet Pietro Bembo in Milan and declares them “the prettiest love letters in the world”

1842- Karl Marx becomes editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung

1881- 1st American fishing magazine, “American Angler” published

1883- US Supreme Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional

1894- Captain Alfred Dreyfus arrested and accused of espionage in France

1917- Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany during WWI at Vincennes near Paris

1933- 20th Amendment to the US Constitution goes into effect: President term begins in January not March

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On This Day: October 8th

October 8th:

2001- US President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security

1915- Battle of Loos on WWI Western Front ends, German forces contain British attack (85,000 casualties)

1633- Massachusetts Bay Colony forms its first government

1769- Captain James Cook lands in New Zealand at Poverty Bay (East Coast)

1775- Officers decide to bar slaves & free blacks from Continental Army

1840- First Hawaiian constitution proclaimed

1871- Forest fire destroys Peshtigo, Wisconsin, killing between 1,200 and 2,500 people, making it then the deadliest wildfire in recorded history

1918- American soldier Alvin York single-handedly attacks German gun nest, killing at least 25 and capturing 132 Germans

1934- Bruno Hauptmann is indicted for murder of Charles Lindbergh’s son

1945- US President Harry Truman announces atomic bomb secret shared with Britain and Canada

1945- Microwave oven patented by US inventor Percy Spencer

1953- Birmingham, Alabama, bars Jackie Robinson’s Negro-White All-Stars from playing there Robinson gives in & drops white players from his group

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On This Day: October 1st

October 1st:

1908- Henry Ford introduces the Model T car (costs $825)

1867- Karl Marx’ “Das Kapital” published

1569- Duke of Norfolk arrested by Queen Elizabeth I for conspiring to marry Mary Queen of Scots

1791- 1st session of new French legislative assembly

1795- France annexes Southern Netherlands

1830- General Trade Journal newspaper begins publishing in Amsterdam

1852- Alfred Russel Wallace returns to the U.K. after four years of travel, collecting, and research in South America

1864- Cyclone strikes Calcutta: 70,000 killed

1864- John Summerfield Staples is paid $500 as a substitute for US President Abraham Lincoln

1868- “Little Women” by Louisa May Alcott is published in America by Roberts Brothers of Boston

1888- National Geographic magazine publishes for the 1st time

1892- University of Chicago opens

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On This Day: September 24th

September 24th:

1789- US Federal Judiciary Act passes, creating a six-person Supreme Court

1950- Operation Magic Carpet concludes after having transported 45,000 Yemenite Jews to Israel

1493- Christopher Columbus embarks on his second expedition to the New World, setting sail with a fleet of 17 ships

1625- Dutch attack San Juan, Puerto Rico

1657- 1st autopsy and coroner’s jury verdict is recorded in Maryland

1683- King Louis XIV expels all Jews from French possessions in America

1786- African American slave and poet Jupiter Hammon makes his “Address to the Negroes of the State of New York” speech advocating emancipation at meeting of African Society in NY

1789- US Attorney General Office is created

1862- Confederate Congress adopts confederacy seal

1883- National black convention meets in Louisville, Kentucky

1889- Alexander Dey patents dial time recorder

1919- Boston Red Sox slugger Babe Ruth sets MLB season home run record at 28 off Yankee Bob Shawkey in a 2-1 loss at the Polo Grounds in NYC

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On This Day: September 17th

September 17th:

1862- Battle of Antietam [Battle of Sharpsburg], bloodiest day in the American Civil War: 22,000 dead, wounded or missing in first battle on Union soil

1787- The US Constitution is signed by delegates at the Philadelphia Convention

1394- Jews are expelled from France by order of King Charles VI

1683- Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is the first to report the existence of bacteria

1849- Harriet Tubman 1st escapes slavery in Maryland with two of her brothers

1859- James Donnelly is sentenced to hang for murdering Patrick Farrell, but a petition for clemency reduces his sentence to 7 years in Kingston Penitentiary

1861- First class for escaped slaves taught by Mary Peake at Fortress Monroe Virginia (now Hampton University).

1862- American Civil War: The Allegheny Arsenal explosion results in the single largest civilian disaster during the war; 78 workers killed.

1947- Jackie Robinson is named Rookie of Year by Sporting News

1954- “Lord of the Flies” by William Golding is published by Faber and Faber in London

1956- Television is first broadcast in Australia.

1964- “Bewitched” premieres on ABC TV

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On This Day: September 10th

September 10th:

2020- California’s August Complex wildfire becomes largest recorded in state history at 471,000 acres (736 square miles)

1977- Hamida Djandoubi, convicted of torture and murder, is the last person to be executed by Guillotine in France

1547- English demand Edward VI (10) wed Mary Queen of Scots (5)

1608- John Smith elected president of Jamestown colony council, Virginia

1845- King Willem II opens Amsterdam Stock exchange

1872- Karl Marx speaks in Amsterdam

1882- 1st international conference to promote anti-semitism meets Dresden Germany (Congress for Safeguarding of Non-Jewish Interests)

1933- 1st Negro League All-Star Game, West beats East 11-7 (Comiskey Park)

1939- Canada, under the leadership of Mackenzie King, declares war on Germany

1945- Vidkun Quisling sentenced to death for collaborating with Nazis

1953- Swanson sells its 1st “TV dinner”

1960- Abebe Bikila runs Olympic/World record marathon (2:15:16.2)

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