On This Day: January 21st

January 21st:

2008- Black Monday in worldwide stock markets. FTSE 100 had its biggest ever one-day points fall, European stocks closed with their worst result since 9/11, and Asian stocks drop as much as 15%.

1789- 1st American novel, WH Brown’s “Power of Sympathy” is published

1542- English Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard

1677- 1st medical publication in America (pamphlet on smallpox), published in Boston

1846- 1st edition of Charles Dickens’ newspaper “The Daily News”

1903- Harry Houdini escapes from Halvemaansteeg police station in Amsterdam

1908- “Sullivan Ordinance” is passed in NYC, making it illegal for a woman to smoke in public places. It was vetoed 2 weeks later by mayor George B. McClellan Jr.

1921- British crime writer Agatha Christie publishes her first novel “The Mysterious Affair at Styles” introducing the character Hercule Poirot

1927- 1st national opera broadcast from a US opera house (Faust, Chicago)

1938- Dutch government starts obligatory unemployment insurance

1962- Snow falls in San Francisco

1977- US President Jimmy Carter pardons almost all Vietnam War draft evaders

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On This Day: January 7th

January 7th:

1953- US President Harry Truman announces American development of the hydrogen bomb

1999- President Bill Clinton’s impeachment trial begins in the US Senate after the House voted to impeach him for lying about his affair with Monica Lewinsky

1610- Galileo Galilei discovers the first three moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa & Ganymede

1611- Trial of Hungarian aristocrat Elizabeth Báthory for killing and torturing hundreds of young women, later sentenced to house arrest for the rest of her life

1782- 1st US commercial bank, Bank of North America, opens in Philadelphia

1785- 1st balloon flight across English Channel by Jean Pierre Blanchard and John Jeffries

1890- African American inventor William Purvis receives a patent for the fountain pen

1927- Commercial transatlantic telephone service inaugurated between New York & London

1929- “Tarzan”, one of the 1st adventure comic strips, 1st appears

1950- Mental health wing of Mercy Hospital burns, kills 41 in Davenport, Iowa

1954- Georgetown-IBM experiment, 1st public demonstration of a machine translation system, is held at IBM’s head office in New York

1955- Marian Anderson becomes the 1st African American to perform with the New York Metropolitan Opera

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On This Day: December 17th

December 17th:

1903- The Wright brothers make the 1st sustained motorized aircraft flight at 10:35 AM, piloted by Orville Wright at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina

1986- Mrs Davina Thompson makes medical history by having the 1st heart, lung & liver transplant at Papworth Hospital in Cambridge, England

1538- Pope Paul II excommunicates King Henry VIII of England

1791- NYC traffic regulation creates 1st 1-way street

1798- 1st impeachment trial against a US senator (William Blount, Tennessee) begins

1821- Kentucky abolishes debtors’ prisons

1843- Henry Cole, founder of London’s V&A Museum, commissions printing of the 1st Christmas card

1852- 1st Hawaiian cavalry organized

1862- General Ulysses S. Grant issues order #11, expelling Jews from Tennessee

1914- Jews are expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities

1919- Austrian parliament approves 8-hour working day

1943- Transport 63 departs with French Jews to nazi-Germany

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On This Day: December 10th

December 10th:

1799- Metric system first adopted in France

1901- First Nobel Peace Prizes awarded to Red Cross founder Jean Henri Dunant and peace activist Frederic Passy

1690- Massachusetts Bay becomes first American colonial government to issue paper money

1817- Mississippi admitted as 20th state of the Union

1864- General Sherman’s armies reach Savannah & 12 day siege begins

1869- Women suffrage (right to vote) granted in Wyoming Territory (US 1st)

1884- “Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” by Mark Twain is first published in the UK and Canada (US Feb 1885, due to printing error)

1901- First Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Wilhelm Röntgen for his discovery of X-rays

1903- Nobel Prize for physics awarded to Pierre and Marie Curie for their study of spontaneous radiation

1904- Ivan Pavlov awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for work on the physiology of digestion, first Russian to win a Nobel Prize

1906- US President Theodore Roosevelt is the 1st American awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1909- Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf is the first woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature

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On This Day: December 3rd

December 3rd:

1967- 1st human heart transplant performed in South Africa by Dr Christiaan Barnard on Louis Washkansky

1989- Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and US President George H. W. Bush, declare the Cold War over

1639- 1st annulment by court decree passes

1775- First official US flag raised (Grand Union Flag) aboard naval vessel USS Alfred

1828- Andrew Jackson elected 7th US President

1833- Oberlin College in Ohio, the first truly coeducational college, opens

1847- Frederick Douglass publishes first issue of his newspaper “North Star”

1863- Confederate General James Longstreet abandons his siege at Knoxville, TN

1868- 1st blacks on US trial jury appointed for Jefferson Davis trial

1920- Turkey & Armenia agree to peace treaty

1926- Detective novelist Agatha Christie mysteriously disappears for 11 days

1931- Alka Seltzer goes on sale

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On This Day: November 12th

November 12th:

1927- Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, paving the way for Joseph Stalin to consolidate complete power

1968- US Supreme Court: Epperson v. Arkansas, court declares unconstitutional Arkansas law banning teaching evolution in public schools

1727- France & Bavaria renew secret treaty

1793- The 1st Mayor of Paris and astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly, is guillotined during the Reign of Terror

1890- Mabel Loomis Todd publishes the first edition of “Poems by Emily Dickinson”

1923- In Germany, Adolf Hitler is arrested for attempt to seize power during “Beer Hall Putsch” coup

1925- US & Italy sign peace accord about war debts

1933- 1st NFL football game on a Sunday at Pittsburgh’s Forbes Field – sporting events on Sunday had been illegal on Sundays; Pirates lose to Brooklyn Dodgers 32-0

1965- Ferdinand Marcos elected 10th President of Philippines

1975- 7h Rugby League World Cup: Australia beats England 25-0

1984- Paul McCartney releases “We All Stand Together”

1990- The World Wide Web is first proposed by CERN computer scientists Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau

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On This Day: November 5th

November 5th:

1937- Adolf Hitler informs his military leaders in a secret meeting of his intentions of going to war.

1605- Gunpowder Plot: Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up King James I and the British Parliament. Plot discovered, Guy Fawkes caught, tortured and later executed along with seven others. Celebrated ever since as Guy Fawkes Day, where his effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, accompanied by fireworks.

1639- First post office in the colonies is set up in Massachusetts

1781- John Hanson elected first “President of US in Congress assembled”

1872- American women’s right to vote advocate Susan B. Anthony votes for Ulysses S. Grant

1872- Ulysses S. Grant re-elected US President

1895- 1st US patent granted for auto (George B Selden) for gasoline driven car

1912- Arizona, Kansas & Wisconsin vote for female suffrage

1912- Democrat candidate Woodrow Wilson is elected President of the United States, defeating Republican incumbent William Howard Taft and Progressive candidate Theodore Roosevelt

1940- Franklin D. Roosevelt is re-elected President of the United States for an unprecedented third term, defeating Republican candidate Wendell Willkie

1946- John F. Kennedy (Democrat, Massachusetts) elected to US House of Representatives

1953- Film “How to Marry a Millionaire” directed by Jean Negulesco, starring Lauren Bacall, Betty Grable and Marilyn Monroe, first to be filmed in CinemaScope; release delayed to allow “The Robe” to debut the format

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On This Day: October 29th

October 29th:

1929- “Black Tuesday” Wall Street Stock Market crashes triggering the “Great Depression”

2015- China announces the end of their one-child policy after 35 years

1390- First trial for witchcraft in Paris

1682- William Penn lands at what is now Chester, Pennsylvania

1692- Court of Oyer and Terminer, convened for Salem witch trials, dissolved

1833- 1st US college fraternity to have a fraternity house founded

1864- Greek parliament accepts new Constitution

1872- J. S. Risdon of Genoa, Illinois, patents the metal windmill

1942- Branch Rickey named president and General Manager of Brooklyn Dodgers

1942- Nazis murder 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union

1954- Sweden begins experimental TV

1958- Boris Pasternak refuses the Nobel Prize for Literature

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On This Day: October 22nd

October 22nd:

1879- Thomas Edison perfects carbonized cotton filament light bulb

1962- Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy addresses TV about Russian missile bases in Cuba and imposes a naval blockade on Cuba, beginning the missile crisis

1836- Sam Houston inaugurated as 1st elected President of the Republic of Texas

1906- Henry Ford becomes President of Ford Motor Company

1907- Ringling Brothers Greatest Show on Earth buys Barnum & Bailey circus

1916- US suffragette Inez Milholland collapses during a speech in Los Angeles (dies weeks later). Her last word’s are to President Woodrow Wilson “Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?”

1926- J. Gordon Whitehead sucker punches magician Harry Houdini in the stomach in Montreal

1934- In East Liverpool, Ohio, notorious bank robber Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd is shot and killed by FBI agents

1936- 1st commercial flight from mainland to Hawaii

1938- Chester Carlson demonstrates 1st Xerox copying machine

1968- Apollo 7 returns to Earth

1969- Paul McCartney denies greatly exaggerated rumors of his death

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On This Day: October 15th:

October 15th:

1815- Napoleon Bonaparte arrives on island of St Helena to begin his exile

1993- Nelson Mandela and South African President F. W. de Klerk awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1520- King Henry VIII of England orders bowling lanes at Whitehall

1674- Torsåker witch trials begin, largest witch trials in Sweden, 71 beheaded and burned

1789- 1st US presidential tour by George Washington in New England

1816- Lord Byron views the love letters of Lucrezia Borgia and poet Pietro Bembo in Milan and declares them “the prettiest love letters in the world”

1842- Karl Marx becomes editor-in-chief of Rheinische Zeitung

1881- 1st American fishing magazine, “American Angler” published

1883- US Supreme Court declares Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional

1894- Captain Alfred Dreyfus arrested and accused of espionage in France

1917- Dutch exotic dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany during WWI at Vincennes near Paris

1933- 20th Amendment to the US Constitution goes into effect: President term begins in January not March

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